“Never visited a colony where negroes had such courage”. Dutch colonial ethos in Curaçao

Publication type Article
Status Published
Affiliation: Russian University of Cooperation
Address: Russian Federation, Mytishchi
Affiliation: Diplomatic Academy of the Russian Foreign Ministry
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameLatin America
EditionIssue 1

The subject of this research is the initial stage of the Dutch colonization of one of the Lesser Antilles, Curacao, which is today a subject of the Federation in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In Russian historiography, the role of Curacao as the largest smuggling center of the eighteenth century is practically not disclosed. The article examines the events of the 17th – 18th centuries. Taking into account the Dutch historical canon, the features of the Dutch colonial ethos in the context of a non-plantation economic system are described. The authors consider such aspects of the topic as the formation of the island as a transit center for transatlantic trade, as well as the role of slaves in its economic development.

The work is based on the principles of historicism, consistency, objectivity. The methodological basis of the research is the historical-genetic method, which allows to show the considered reality in its historical development. Despite the milder conditions of exploitation of slaves, numerous cases of escape and unrest of slaves are known. A characteristic feature of Curacao was the presence in all economic spheres of free blacks and mulattoes, mainly due to the urban economy.

Keywordscolonialism, the Netherlands, the Caribbean region, Curacao, porto-franco, transit center, urban economy, plantation economy, colonial ethos
Publication date24.01.2022
Number of characters28428
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 409

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Boxtel, Roger van. Speech by Boxtel. World Conference Against Racism, 2010. Available at: http://www.un.org/WCAR/statements/netherE.htm (accessed 16.03.19).

2. Visscher M. Historicus Piet Emmer: «Zij die over ons slavernijverleden het hoogste woord voeren, weten sterk te overdrijven. Volkskrant, 6 januari 2018. Available at: https://www.volkskrant.nl/cultuur-media/historicus-piet-emmer-zij-die-over-ons-slavernijverle-den-het-hoogste-woord-voeren-weten-sterkteoverdrijven~b749e1ce/?hash=9709790bdae67f35b 908bf85209b6735046a0f02&referer=https://www.nieuwwij.nl/actueel/piet-emmer-kolonialisme-bracht-moderne-beschaving/ (accessed 17.03.2019).

3. Bosma U. (Ed.) Post-colonial immigrants and identity formations in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010, 244 p.

4. Zunder A. A new look on the economic history of Suriname. Including a methodology to calculate reparations for damage caused by Dutch colonial rule. Academic Journal of Suriname, 2011 (2), pp. 150–167.

5. Shahabuddeen, M. Slavery and Historiographical Rectification. Georgetown: Guyana Commemoration Commission, 1984, 22 p.

6. Heemskerk A. Reisindrukken uit West-Indie. Amsterdam, 1878, A. van Oosterzee, 47 p.

7. Casas de las B. Historia de las Indias. T. II. Mexico: Editora Nacional, 1951, 543 p.

8. Hartog J. Curaçao. Van kolonie tot autonomie Aruba D. J. Witt, D. I-II, 1961, 1156 p.

9. Haviser J.B. Amerindian cultural geography on Curaçao. Leiden, 1987, 212 p.

10. Haviser J., Decorse C. African-Caribbean Interaction: A Research Plan for Curacao Creole Culture. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Congress for Caribbean Archaeology. Curasao, Netherlands Antilles, 1991, Part I, pp. 326-337.

11. Cardot F.C. Curazao hispanico. Antagonismo Flamenco-Espanol Caracas: Ediciones de la Presidencia de la Republica, 1982, 552 p.

12. Teenstra M.D. De negerslaven in de kolonie Suriname. Dordrecht: H. Lagerweij, 1842, 380 p.

13. Klooster W. Illicit Riches: Dutch Trade in the Caribbean, 1648-1795. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1998, 283 p.

14. Gehring Charles T. (Ed), Curacao Papers. 1640-1655: A Publication of the New Netherland Research Center and the New Netherland Institute, 2011, 236 p.

15. Smeulders V. Slavery in perspective. Globalization and heritage in Suriname, Ghana, South Africa and Curaçao. Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit, 2012, 237 p.

16. Gumbol'dt A. Puteshestvie v ravnodenstvennye oblasti Novogo Sveta v 1799-1804 gg. Plavanie po Orinoko. M., Mysl', 1964, 655 s.

17. Joordan H. Slavernij en vrijheid op Curaçao. De dynamiek van een achttiende-eeuws Atlantisch handelsknooppunt. Proefschrift. Ter verkrijging vande graad van Doctor aan de Universiteit Leiden, 2013, 320 p. Available at: https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/19083 (accessed 14.03.2019).

18. Grovenstein van en W.C. NL-HaNA, Verspreide West-Indische Stukken, 1.05.06, inv.nr. 972. Copie-rapport over Curacao door de commissarissen W.A.J Boey uitgebracht aan prins Willem V. 11 februari 1791. Available at: http://www.gahetna.nl/en/collec-tie/archief/inventaris/gahetnas-cans/eadid/1.05.2006/aan-tal/20/inventarisnr/972/level/file (accessed 14.03.2019).

19. Hering J.H. Beschryving van het eiland Curaçao, en de daar onder hoorende eilanden, Bon-Aire, Oroba en Klein Curaçao, benevens een kort bericht, wegens hetgesprongen schip AlphenAmsterdam: V. Selm, 1779, 89 p.

20. Klooster W. Curaçao as a Transit Center to the Spanish Main and the French West Indies. Dutch Atlantic Connections, 1680-1800. Ed. Gert Oostindie and Jessica V. Roitman. Leiden – Boston: Brill, 2014, pp. 25-51.

21. Marley D.F. Historic Cities of the Americas. An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2005, 1009 p.

22. Kotil'ya M.O., Kordoba R.D. Zemletryasenie v Sant'yago-de-Kuba 20 avgusta 1852 goda. Geologiya i geofizika. Novosibirsk, t. 51, (11), 2010, cc. 1576-1599.

23. Roe E.A. The Sound of Silent: Ideology of National Identity and Racial Inequality in Contemporary Curacao. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Miami: Florida International University, 383. Available at: https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/2590 (accessed 08.03.2019). DOI: 10.25148/etd.FIDC000734

24. Debrot A.O. Cultural ties to the land in an arid plantation setting in Curacao. Final report submitted to Commission of the Island Territory of Curaçao. Curacao: CARMABI Foundation, 2009, 61 p.

25. Lampe A. El catolicismo político en Curazao 1936-1962. Revista Mexicana del Caribe, 2016, N 21. pp. 90-117.

26. Klooster, W. The rising expectations of free and enslaved blacks in the greater Caribbean. Curaçao in the Age of Revolutions, 1795-1800. Leiden: KITLV, 2011, pp. 57-74.

27. Aizpurua R. En torno a la aparición de un pueblo de esclavos fugidos de Curazao en la Sierra de Coro en el siglo XVIII. Boletín de la Academia Nacional de la Historia. Caracas. V. 87 (345), 2004, pp. 109-128.

28. Rupert M.L. Inter-colonial networks and revolutionary ferment in eighteenth-century Curaçao and Tierra Firme. Curacao in the Age of Revolutions, 1795-1800. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2011, pp. 75-96.

29. Baro M.G. Venezuela en el tiempo. Cronología desde la fundación de la República. Caracas: Los Libros de El Nacional, 2009, 82 p.

30. Postma J. The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990, 444 p.

31. Lamur H.E. Demographic performance of two slave populations in the Dutch speaking Caribbean. Boletín de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe, 1981, (30), pp. 87-102.

32. Kappler A. Zes jaren in Suriname. Schetsen en tafereelen uit het maatschappelijke en militaire leven in deze kolonie. Utrecht: W.F. Dannenfelser, 1854, 1183 p.

33. Joordan H. Free Blacks and Coloreds, and the Administration of Justice in Eighteenth-Century Curaçao. New West Indian Guide, 2010, (1-2), pp. 63–86.

34. Teenstra M.D. De landbouw in de kolonie Suriname: voorafgegaan door eene geschied-en natuurkundige beschouwing dier kolonie. Deel. I. Groningen: H. Eekhoff, 1835, 434 p.

35. Allen R.M. Di ki manera? A Social History of Afro-Curaçaoans, 1863-1917. Proefschrift. Utrecht: [s.n.], 2007, 304 p.

36. Roitman J.V. «A mass of mestiezen, castiezen, and mulatten»: Contending with color in the Netherlands Antilles, 1750–1850. Atlantic Studies, 2007, (3), pp. 399-417. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14788810.2017.1318022

37. Goslinga Ch. Emancipatie en emancipator: De geschiedenis van de Slavernij of de Benedenwindse Eilanden en van het werk der Bevrijding. Academisch proefshrift. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1956, 187 p.

38. Teenstra M.D. De Nederlandsche West-Indische Eilanden. Deel. I. Amsterdam: Sulpke, 1836, 351 p.

39. Oostindie G. Slave resistance, colour lines, and the impact of the French and Haitian revolutions in Curaçao. Curacao in the Age of Revolutions, 1795-1800. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2011, pp. 1-23.

40. Murgueitio M. La revolución negra en Saint Domingue y sus efectos en la guerra racial de las Antillas y Tierra Firme, 1789 – 1797. Historia y espacio, 2009, V. 5 (33), pp. 172-206.

41. Borucki A. Trans-imperial History in the Making of the Slave Trade to Venezuela, 1526-1811. Itinerario, 2012, V. 36 (2), pp. 29-54.

42. Trevelyan G.O. The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay. Leipsic (USA): Lemmermon, 1876. 2 vol. in 1. V. 1. (307), 311 p.

43. Tula: een vrijheidstrijder voor alle generaties Succesvolle NiNsee herdenking Slavenopstand op Curaçao 1795. Available at: http://marlondikorsou.blogspot.com/2010/09/tula-een-vrijheidstrijder-voor-alle.html (accessed 19.03.2019).

44. Kol van H. Een Noodlijdende Kolonie. Amsterdam-Rotterdam: Gedrukt bij Masereeuw @ Bouters, 1901, 39 p.

45. Blink M.J. van den. Olie op de golven. De betrekkingen tussen Nederland. Curaçao en Venezuela gedurende de eerste helft van de twintigste eeuw. Amsterdam: De Bataafsche Leeuw, 1998, 128 p.

46. Brandon P. Sociale mobiliteit en raciale scheidslijnen op Curaçao. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, 2014, V. 127. (3), pp. 523-525.

Система Orphus