Strategic Planning as a Tool for the Economy Efficiency Growth: Foreign Experience and Russian Practice

Title (other)Стратегическое планирование как инструмент повышения эффективности экономики: зарубежный опыт и российская практика
Publication type Article
Status Published
Affiliation: Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: Independent Researcher
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameISTORIYA

The authors analyze foreign experience and Russian practice of strategic planning, considering it as one of the main tools for increasing the level of efficiency of the national economy. The authors propose to create a new or give appropriate powers to the existing federal executive body, which will develop, coordinate, control and monitor the implementation of strategic plans, including the strategy of spatial development of Russia.

Abstract (other)Авторы анализируют зарубежный опыт и российскую практику стратегического планирования, рассматривая его в качестве одного из главных инструментов повышения уровня эффективности национальной экономики. Авторы предлагают создать новый или наделить соответствующими полномочиями существующий федеральный орган исполнительной власти, который будет осуществлять разработку, координацию, контроль и мониторинг реализации стратегических планов, включая стратегию пространственного развития России.
Keywordsstrategic planning, economic efficiency, state regulation of the economy, socio-economic policy, spatial development strategy
Keywords list (other)стратегическое планирование, эффективность экономики, государственное регулирование экономики, социально-экономическая политика, стратегия пространственного развития
AcknowledgmentThis article is a translation of: Балюк И. А., Балюк М. Стратегическое планирование как инструмент повышения эффективности экономики: зарубежный опыт и российская практика // Общество и экономика. 2021. Вып. 2 C. 43—59. DOI: 10.31857/S020736760013637-9
Publication date25.06.2021
Number of characters35586
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1 Strategic planning is an important element of the management system both at the micro level (at the level of individual economic entities) and at the meso (at the level of individual regions and industries) and macro level (at the level of the economy as a whole). It consists in defining the key goals and main priorities of the development, as well as the methods and means necessary to achieve them. At the level of public administration, strategic planning allows to form mechanisms that guide and correct the behavior of economic agents at the micro level in such a way as to ensure the achievement of goals at the macro level. Ultimately, strategic planning is designed to increase the level of economic efficiency and the stability of the country's development, due to creation the conditions for harmonizing the interests of all economic actors.
2 In the Federal Law of June 28, 2014 No. 172-FZ "On Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation", strategic planning is understood as “The activities of participants in strategic planning for goal-setting, forecasting, planning and programming the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation, constituent entities of the Russian Federation and municipalities, sectors of the economy and spheres of state and municipal administration, ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation, aimed at solving the problems of sustainable socio-economic development of the Russian Federation, constituent entities of the Russian Federation and municipalities and ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation ”(Article 3, item 1) [1].
3 The adoption of the law on strategic planning became an important step towards the civilized institutional development of the public administration system after a long period of denial of the need for direct state participation in regulating the activities of subjects of economic relations. If in Soviet times exclusively directive methods of economic management were used and there was a system of state planning headed by the USSR State Planning Committee, then in the post-Soviet space the planning idea was discredited and the previously existing system was completely destroyed (the State Planning Committee was liquidated in 1991 together with all republican, regional, district and city planning commissions). The belief that the economy does not need regulation began to dominate, that only the so-called “invisible hand of the market” [2] can ensure development and prosperity. In practice, this meant the actual elimination of the state from the regulation of economic activity in society.
4 As a justification for the need to eliminate government from active management of the economy, references were made on the experience of countries with developed market economies, which allegedly ensured their economic growth and an increase in the living standards of the population due to the “liberation from the shackles” of state regulation and the use of exclusively market methods management. The spread of this point of view was facilitated by the rise of the world economy on the edge of the XX—XXI centuries and took place in the conditions of significant liberalization of state regulation in the financial market. However, the global financial and economic crisis of 2008—2009 once again demonstrated the inconsistency of ideas about the self-sufficiency of market mechanisms and regulators and their ability to ensure a balanced, sustainable development of both the economy of a single country and the world economy as a whole.
5 As international practice shows, countries with developed market economies applied and are currently quite actively using various types of planning (including strategic planning) and government regulation. Of course, each country uses certain methods and principles of strategic planning. Each country differs by certain national characteristics, which have been reflected in a number of scientific publications. Various Russian experts are studying foreign experience of state strategic planning, including A. Boyko, D. Dvinskikh, A. Klimenko, V. Korolev, A. Lagunov, I. Lebedeva, N. Nevskaya, L. Pakhomova, A. Rassadina, N. Rychkova, I. Slastikhina, S. Kholyavko and others. Despite the differences they noted in the state regulation of the economy in individual countries of the world, strategic planning methods were applied to one degree or another, aimed to increase socio-economic efficiency and ensure stability of their economic systems.

The degree of state regulation of the economy, including the use of strategic planning methods, is quite high in many developed countries of the world. Moreover, the governments of advanced economies, as some researchers note, “with all possible imposition of the idea of a free market outside their borders and all kinds of advancement of exclusively measures to liberalize the economy as a recipe for developing countries, they actively used and are using industrial policy and various planned methods of economic regulation as the most important component of their own development strategy” [3. P. 38].

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