From Where is Russian Ethnology and Where is it Going? A Personal View in Global Perspective

 
PIIS086954150009606-6-1
DOI10.31857/S086954150009606-6
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 32a Leninsky prospekt, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Affiliation: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 32a Leninsky prospekt, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Affiliation: University of Aberdeen
Address: King’s College, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, UK
Affiliation: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Address: Teknikringen 74D, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Affiliation: Georgetown University
Address: 37th and O Streets, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20057, USA
Affiliation: Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera)
Address: 3 University Emb., Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Russia
Occupation: Leading Research Fellow
Affiliation: Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 30/1 Spiridonovka St., Moscow, 123001, Russia
Affiliation: Institut für Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie
Address: Universitätsstraße 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria
Journal nameEtnograficheskoe obozrenie
Edition№2
Pages72-137
Abstract

The article presents an overview of major trends in, and challenges of, the Russian ethnology for the past three decades. This is an examination of the state of the art from an intra-disciplinary perspective insofar as the author had a privilege to be in the center of Russian academic and public life for many years. He initiated and influenced academic strategies and institutional transformations as the long-term director of the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences. This is also an outlook on Russia’s national school of ethnology presented in the context of broader theoretical shifts and disciplinary changes in social/cultural anthropology and ethnology in the world. The key issues discussed are: a) the professional disciplinary inertia and a hard road to the reassessment of the Soviet legacies; b) the constraining effects of public practices on the choice of theoretical stances or concepts, such as social constructivism; c) the contradictory influence on the academic community on the part of the dominant discourse of ethnonationalism and the practices of “postcolonial” or indigenous anthropology; d) the integration of the traditional ethnographic method and innovative approaches and the prospects for looking into cultural commonalities as opposed to the long-lived anthropological obsession with establishing cultural differences. The article discusses a nation-building project based on the vision of Russia as a multiethnic civic nation and the mission of anthropology in this endeavor. The author evaluates the post-Soviet period as the most fruitful one from the viewpoint of opening new research fields, as well as of thematic and geographic expansions. The article is supplemented with comments by O. Artemova, D. Anderson, D. Arzyutov, M. M. Balzer, A. Golovnev, V. Filippov, and P. Schweitzer, and with the author’s response.

KeywordsRussia, multiethnicity, world anthropology, Soviet and Russian ethnology, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Association of Anthropologists and Ethnologists of Russia, ethnos theory, ethnicity, social constructivism, postcolonialism, indigenousness, indigenous anthropology, ethnonationalism, cultural complexity, nation and nation-building
Received18.06.2020
Publication date19.06.2020
Number of characters179701
Cite  
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.
Размещенный ниже текст является ознакомительной версией и может не соответствовать печатной
1

Точки отсчета

2 В начале 2019 г. под редакцией норвежского антрополога Т.Х. Эриксена и чешского этнолога М. Якубека вышла в свет книга (Eriksen, Jacoubek 2019), посвященная 50-летию издания знаменитого сборника статей под редакцией Ф. Барта “Этнические группы и границы: социальная организация культурных различий” (Barth 1969). Обе публикации примечательны для истории мировой этнологии и социальной/культурной антропологии: одна оказала мощное и разностороннее влияние на изучение феномена этничности и не только, другая представляет собой попытку ведущих исследователей Европы и Америки осмыслить полувековую эволюцию одной из центральных тем нашей дисциплины – тему этничности. Как один из авторов книги о наследии бартовской концепции и как ветеран этнологического цеха, пользуюсь возможностью изложить некоторые обзорные положения и привести отдельные заключения о развитии мировой и российской этнографической/этнологической науки в недавнем прошлом и о ее возможных перспективах. Не претендуя на полноту обзора, статья представляет собой, как подчеркивает ее название, “персональный взгляд” на обсуждаемые проблемы.
3 Поскольку книга под редакцией Ф. Барта и содержащаяся в ней концепция дошли до русскоязычного читателя с огромным опозданием (Барт 2006), то можно сказать определенно: позднесоветская этнография эпохи Ю.В. Бромлея и западные антрополого-этнологические штудии шли почти не пересекающими курсами, по крайней мере с точки зрения их теоретико-методологического арсенала. Об этом, кстати, написала американский антрополог К. Вердери, вспоминая историю совместных советско-американских симпозиумов в Таллине и Новом Орлеане в 1980-е годы. Эти форумы были инициированы горбачевской перестройкой и координировались с советской стороны Ю.В. Бромлеем, с американской – С. Минцем в рамках межакадемических обменов наших стран. Вот как К. Вердери описывает свои впечатления от этой “встречи” двух школ и идеологий:
4 В то время я не все осознавала. Я просто смотрела на советских ученых как на теоретически допотопных [theoretically antediluvian] по сравнению с нами – молодыми барто-марксистами, вооруженными актуальными тогда ситуационализмом, самоидентификацией, политической экономией. На самом же деле я была свидетелем одной из великих коллизий в работе обществоведов – проблемы связи теории и социальной идеологии… Тогда на конференции я встретилась с собеседником [interlocutor] (имеется в виду Ю.В. Бромлей. – В.Т.) …предлагающим теоретическое объяснение (его концепт этноса) как открытое обоснование идеологии, удерживающей единство Советского Союза (Verdery 2019: 40).
5 “Где кончается этническая теория и начинается идеология?” – спрашивает себя К. Вердери. Тогда у нее не было ответа, и только спустя время она поняла, что “на этой конференции произошло столкновение чего-то гораздо большего, чем хорошая и плохая теории” (Там же).

Number of purchasers: 3, views: 2789

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Anderson, D.G., and D.V. Arzyutov. 2016. The Construction of Soviet Ethnography and “The Peoples of Siberia”. History and Anthropology 27 (2): 183–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/02757206.2016.1140159

2. Anderson, D.G., and D.V. Arzyutov. 2019. The Etnos Archipelago: Sergei M. Shirokogoroff and the Life History of a Controversial Anthropological Concept. Current Anthropology 60 (6): 741–773. https://doi.org/10.1086/704685

3. Anderson, D.G., D.V. Arzyutov, and S.S. Alymov, eds. 2019. Life Histories of Etnos Theory in Russia and Beyond. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers.

4. Artemova, O.Yu. 2019. Akademicheskie issledovateli v vysshei shkole (Iz opyta dvadtsati let raboty) [Academic Researchers in Higher Education (From the Experience of Twenty Years of Work)]. In XIII Kongress Antropologov i Etnologov Rossii: Sb. Materialov. Kazan, 2–6 Iulia 2019 g. [XIII Congress of Anthropologists and Ethnologists of Russia: Proceedings. Kazan, July 2–6, 2019], edited by M.Yu. Martynova, XXXVI – XLIII. Moscow; Kazan: IEA RAN; KFU; Institut istorii im. Sh. Mardzhani AN RT.

5. Arutyunov, S.A., et al., eds. 1996. Etnologicheskii slovar’ [Ethnological Dictionary]. Vol. 1, Etnos. Natsiia. Obshchestvo [Ethnicity, Nation, Society]. Moscow: VITTAN.

6. Arzhantseva, I.A. 2016. Khorezm. Istoriia otkrytii i issledovanii. Etnograficheskii al’bom [Khorezm: History of Discoveries and Research: Ethnographic Album]. Ulyanovsk: Artishok.

7. Barth, F. 1969. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget.

8. Barth, F. 1996. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. In Ethnicity, edited by J. Hutchinson and A.D. Smith, 75–82. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

9. Barth, F., ed. 2006. Etnicheskie gruppy i sotsial’nye granitsy: sotsial’naia organizatsiia kul’turnykh razlichii [Ethnic Groups and Social Boundaries: The Social Organization of Cultural Differences]. Moscow: Novoe izdatel’stvo.

10. Bateson, G. 1987. Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology. London: Jason Aronson Inc.

11. Belkov, P.A. 1993. O metode postroeniia teorii etnosa [On the Method of Constructing a Theory of Ethnos]. In Etnosy i etnicheskie protsessy. Pamiati R.F. Itsa [Ethnos and Ethnic Processes: In Memory of R.F. Its], edited by V.A. Popov, 48–61. Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura.

12. Bessire, L., and D. Bond. 2014. Ontological Anthropology and the Deferral of Critique. American Ethnologist 41 (3): 440–456. https://doi.org/10.1111/amet.12083

13. Boehm, Ch. 2012. Moral Origins: The Evolution of Virtue, Altruism, and Shame. New York: Basic Books.

14. Boehm, Ch., and J. Flack. 2010. The Emergence of Simple and Complex Power Structures through Social Niche Construction. In The Social Psychology of Power, edited by A. Guinote, 46–87. London: Guilford.

15. Bondarenko, D.M., A.V. Korotaev, and N.N. Kradin. 2011. Preface to the Second Edition. In Alternatives of Social Evolution, edited by N.N. Kradin, A.V. Korotaev, and D.M. Bondarenko, 9–26. Saarbücken: LAP Lambert Academic.

16. Brubaker, R. 2012. Etnichnost’ bez grupp [Ethnicity Without Groups]. Moscow: Vysshaia shkola ekonomiki.

17. Cheshko, S.V. 1994. Chelovek i etnichnost’ [The Man and Ethnicity]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 6: 35–49.

18. Chesnov, Y.V. 1998. Lektsii po istoricheskoi etnologii [Lectures on Historical Ethnology]. Moscow: Gardarika.

19. Clifford, J., and G.E. Marcus, eds. 1986. Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.

20. Cohen, A.P. 1994. Self-Consciousness: An Alternative Anthropology of Identity. London: Routledge.

21. Comaroff, J. 2011. The End of Anthropology, Again: On the Future of an In/Discipline? In The End of Anthropology?, edited by H. Jebens and K.-H. Kohl, 81–112. Wantage: Sean Kingston Publishing.

22. Ekeev, N.V., ed. 2014. Altaitsy: etnicheskaia istoriia, traditsionnaia kul’tura, sovremennoe razvitie [Altaians: Ethnic History, Traditional Culture, Modern Development]. Gorno-Altaisk: NII altaistiki im. S.S. Surazakova.

23. Eriksen, T.H., and M. Jacoubek, eds. 2019. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries Today: Fifty Years Legacy. London: Routledge.

24. Etkind, A. 2011. Internal Colonization: Russia’s Imperial Experience. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

25. Feyerabend, P. 2001. Against Method. London: Verso.

26. Filippova, E.I. 2007. Poniatie “ethnie” vo frantsuzskoi nauchnoi traditsii i ego politicheskoe ispol’zovanie [The Notion of Ethnie in the French Academic Tradition and Its Political Use]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 3: 52–60.

27. Filippova, E.I., ed. 2009. Sotsial’naia antropologiia vo Frantsii. XXI vek [Social Anthropology in France: 21st Century]. Moscow: IEA RAN.

28. Filippova, E.I. 2010. Territoriia identichnosti v sovremennoi Frantsii [Territory of Identity in Modern France]. Moscow: IEA RAN.

29. Filippova, E.I., and V.R. Filippov. 1992. “Kamo griadeshi?” [“Quo vadis?”]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 6: 3–17.

30. Finlayson, B., and G. Warren, eds. 2017. The Diversity of Hunter-Gatherer Pasts. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

31. Fischer, M.M.J. 2003. Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice. Durham: Duke University Press.

32. Flannery, K., and J. Marcus. 2012. The Creation of Inequality: How Our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery, and Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

33. Funk, D.A., and N.A. Tomilov, eds. 2006. Tiurkskie narody Sibiri [Turkic Peoples of Siberia]. Moscow: Nauka, 2006.

34. Fursova, E.F., ed. 2019. Etnokul’turnaia identichnost’ narodov Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii [Ethnocultural Identity of the Peoples of Siberia and Adjacent Territories]. Novosibirsk: Izdatel’stvo IAET SO RAN.

35. Geertz, C. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.

36. Geertz, C. 2004. Interpretatsiia kul’tur [The Interpretation of Cultures]. Moscow: ROSSPEN.

37. Gellner, E., ed. 1980. Soviet and Western Anthropology. London: Duckworth.

38. Gellner, E. 1988. State and Society in Soviet Thought. Oxford: Blackwell.

39. Gellner, E. 1991. Natsii i natsionalizm [Nations and Nationalism], translated by I.I. Krupnik. Moscow: Progress.

40. Golovnev, A.V. 2016. Yashchik s instrumentami, ili o metodakh antropologii [A Box of Tools, or on the Methods of Anthropology]. In Universitas historiae, edited by A.O. Chubarian, 549–556. Moscow: IEA RAN.

41. Golovnev, A.V. 2018. Etnografiia v rossiiskoi akademicheskoi traditsii [Ethnography in the Russian Academic Tradition.]. Etnografia 1: 6–39. https://doi.org/10.31250/2618-8600-2018-1-6-39

42. Guboglo, M.N. 1994. Razvivaiushchiisia elektorat Rossii: etnopoliticheskii rakurs [The Developing Electorate of Russia: An Ethnopolitical View]. 2 vols. Moscow: IEA RAN.

43. Guboglo, M.N. 2000. Mozhet li dvuglavyi orel letat’ s odnim krylom? Razmyshleniia o zakonotvorchestve v sfere mezhetnicheskikh otnoshenii [Can a Double-Headed Eagle Fly with One Wing? Reflections on Lawmaking in the Field of Interethnic Relations]. Moscow: IEA RAN.

44. Guboglo, M.N. 2003. Identifikatsiia identichnosti. Etnosotsiologicheskie ocherki [Identification of Ethnicity: Ethnosociological Essays]. Moscow: Nauka.

45. Guboglo, M.N. 2005. Mezhdistsiplinarnye issledovaniia v kontekste sotsial’no-kul’turnoi antropologii [Interdisciplinary Research in the Context of Sociocultural Anthropology]. Moscow: Nauka.

46. Hannerz, U. 1992. Cultural Complexity: Studies in the Social Organization of Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press.

47. Hannerz, U. 1996. Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places. London: Routledge.

48. Hayden, B. 2014. The Power of Feasts – From Prehistory to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

49. Hirsch, F. 2005. Empire of Nations: Ethnographic Knowledge and the Making of the Soviet Union. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

50. Hobsbawm, E. 1995. Natsii i natsionalizm posle 1780 goda [Nations and Nationalism after 1780], translated by A.A. Vasiliev. St. Peterburg: Aleteiia.

51. Horowitz, D. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.

52. Horowitz, D. 2001. The Deadly Ethnic Riot. Berkeley: University of California Press.

53. Hutchinson, J., and A.D. Smith, eds. 1996. Ethnicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

54. Inikova, S.I., ed. 2009. Russkie Riazanskogo kraia [Russians of the Ryazan Region]. 2 vols. Moscow: Indrik.

55. Kassof, A., and L.B. Plaks. 1994. Managing Ethnic Conflict: The Kona Statement. In Project of Ethnic Relations: The Kona Statement. April 1994. Princeton, NJ. http://www.per-usa.org/1997-2007/kona.htm

56. Kelly, R.L. 2013. The Lifeways of Hunter-Gatherers: The Foraging Spectrum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

57. Kohl, K.-H. 2011. Introduction. In The End of Anthropology?, edited by H. Jebens and K.-H. Kohl, 1–12. Wantage: Sean Kingston Publishing.

58. Kolpakov, E.M. 1995. Etnos i etnichnost’ [Ethnos and Ethnicity]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 5: 13–23.

59. Kryukov, M.V., and I. Zelnov, eds. 1988. Etnografiia i smezhnye distsipliny. Etnograficheskie subdistsipliny. Shkoly i napravleniia. Metody [Ethnography and Related Disciplines: Ethnographic Subdisciplines: Schools and Directions, Methods]. Moscow: Nauka.

60. Kuper, A. 2011. The Original Sin of Anthropology. In The End of Anthropology, edited by H. Jebens and K.-H. Kohl, 37–60. Wantage: Sean Kingston Publishing.

61. Kuznetsov, A.M. 2017. Kto vy, professor Shirokogorov? Ili, ostorozhno – fal’sifikatsiia [Who Are You, Professor Shirokogorov? Or Be Careful – A Falsification]. Vestnik antropologii 4: 107–118.

62. Lebov, O., and J. Crowfoot, eds. 1989. The Soviet Empire: Its Nations Speak Out. Harwood: Taylor & Francis.

63. Lieven, A. 1998. Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power. New Haven: Yale University Press.

64. Lotman, Yu.M. 2000. Semiosfera. Kul’tura i vzryv sredi mysliashchikh mirov [Semiosphere: Culture and Explosion in the Thinking Worlds]. St. Petersburg: Iskusstvo.

65. Lurie, S.V. 2004. Istoricheskaia etnologiia [Historical Ethnology]. Moscow: Akademicheskii Proekt.

66. Malakhov, V.S. 2001. Skromnoe obaianie rasizma i drugie stat’i [The Discreet Charm of Racism]. Moscow: Modest Kolerov i “Dom intellektual’noi knigi”.

67. Marcus, G.E., and M.M.J. Fischer. 1986. Anthropology as Cultural Critique: An Experimental Moment in the Human Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

68. Martynova, M., D. Peterson, R. Ignatiev, and N. Madariaga, eds. 2015. Peoples, Identities and Regions: Spain, Russia and the Challenge of the Multi-Ethnic State. Moscow: IEA RAN.

69. Martynova, M.Yu., ed. 2012. Granitsy, kul’tura i identichnost’. Etnologiia vostochnoslavianskogo pogranich’ia [Borders, Culture, and Identity: Ethnology of the East Slavic Borderland]. Moscow: IEA RAN.

70. Martynova, M.Yu., ed. 2019. XIII Kongress antropologov i etnologov Rossii: sbornik materialov. Kazan’, 2–6 iulia 2019 g. [XIII Congress of Anthropologists and Ethnologists of Russia: Proceedings. Kazan, July 2–6, 2019]. Moscow; Kazan: IEA RAN; KFU; Institut istorii im. Sh. Mardzhani AN RT.

71. Martynova, M.Yu., and V.V. Stepanov, eds. 2019. Izmerenie kul’turnogo mnogoobraziia. Yazykovaia situatsiia, perepisi, polevaia etnostatistika [The Measurement of Cultural Diversity: Language Situation, Censuses, Field Ethnostatistics]. Moscow: IEA RAN.

72. Momdjian, K.Kh., and A.Yu. Antonovsky, eds. 2015. Etnos, natsiia, tsennosti. Sotsial’no-filosofskie issledovaniia [Ethnicity, Nation, Values: Social-Philosophical Research]. Moscow: Canon.

73. Novikova, N.I., ed. 2008. Liudi Severa: prava na resursy i ekspertiza [People of the North: Rights to Resources and Expertise]. M.: Izdatel’skii dom “Strategiia”.

74. Novikova, N.I. 2014. Okhotniki i neftianiki. Issledovaniia po yuridicheskoi antropologii [Hunters and Oilmen: Studies in Legal Anthropology]. Moscow: Nauka.

75. Novikova, N.I., and D.A. Funk, eds. 2012. Sever i severiane. Sovremennoe polozhenie korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka [The North and Northerners: The Current Situation of the Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East]. Moscow: IEA RAN.

76. Olcott, M., and V. Tishkov. 1999. From Ethnos to Demos: The Quest for Russia’s Identity. In Russia after Communism, edited by A. Åslund and M.B. Olcott, 61–90. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

77. Paxson, M. 2005. Solovyovo: The Story of Memory in a Russian Village. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

78. Petrukhin, V.Ya., and D.S. Raevsky. 2018. Istoriia narodov Rossii v drevnosti i rannem Srednevekov’e. Uchebnoe posobie dlia bakalavriata i magistratury [The History of the Peoples of Russia in Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: A Textbook for Undergraduate and Graduate Courses]. Moscow: Yurayt.

79. Poleschuk, V.V., and V.V. Stepanov. 2013. Etnicheskaia politika v stranakh Baltii [Ethnic Policy in the Baltic Countries]. Moscow: Nauka.

80. Polevanov, V.P., and B.N. Porfiriev. 2017. O klimaticheskoi probleme i prirodopodobnykh tekhnologiiakh [On Climate Issues and Nature-Like Technologies]. Ekonomicheskie strategii 3: 40–49.

81. Popkov, Yu.V. 2019. Global’nyi kontekst aktualizatsii temy identichnosti i ee mesto v problemnom pole gosudarstvennoi natsional’noi politiki Rossii [The Global Context of the Actualization of the Theme of Identity and Its Place in the Problem Area of the State National Policy of Russia]. In Etnokul’turnaia identichnost’ narodov Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii [Ethnocultural Identity of Peoples of Siberia and Adjacent Territories], edited by E.F. Fursova, 9–17. Novosibirsk: Izdatel’stvo IAET SO RAN.

82. Rybakov, S.E. 2001. Filosofiia etnosa [The Philosophy of Ethnos]. Moscow: IPK State Services.

83. Schnirelman, V.A. 2001. The Value of the Past: Myths, Identity and Politics in Transcaucasia. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.

84. Shirokogoroff, S.M. 1935. Psychomental Complex of the Tungus. London: Kegan Paul.

85. Shnirelman, V.A. 2003. Voiny pamiati: mify, identichnost’ i politika v Zakavkaz’e [Memory Wars: Myths, Identity and Politics in the Caucasus]. Moscow: Akademicheskaia kniga.

86. Shnirelman, V.A. 2006. Byt’ alanami. Intellektualy i politika na Severnom Kavkaze v XX veke [To Be Alans: Intellectuals and Politics in the North Caucasus in the 20th Century]. Moscow: NLO.

87. Shnirelman, V.A. 2011. “Porog tolerantnosti”: ideologiia i praktika novogo rasizma [The Threshold of Tolerance: The Ideology and Practice of the New Racism]. 2 vols. Moscow: NLO.

88. Shnirelman, V.A. 2012. Russian Rodnoverie: Neopaganism and Nationalism in Modern Russia. Moscow: BBI.

89. Shnirelman, V.A. 2012. Khazar Myth: The Ideology of Political Radicalism in Russia and Its Origins. Moscow: Mosty Kul’tury – Gesharim.

90. Shnirelman, V.A. 2015. Ariiskii mif v sovremennom mire [Aryan Myth in the Modern World]. Moscow: NLO.

91. Siapkas, J. 2014. Ancient Ethnicity and Modern Identity. In A Companion to Ethnicity in the Ancient Mediterranean, edited by J. Mclnerney, 66–81. Malden: Wiley Blackwell.

92. Simpson, A. 2007. On Ethnographic Refusal: Indigeneity, “Voice” and Colonial Citizenship. Junctures: The Journal for Thematic Dialogue 9: 67–80.

93. Slezkine, Y. 1994. The USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism. Slavic Review 53 (2): 414–52. https://doi.org/10.2307/2501300

94. Smith, A.D. 1999. Myths and Memories of the Nation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

95. Sneath, D. 2018. From Transactionalism to Practice Theory. In Schools and Styles of Anthropological Theory, edited by M. Candea, 91–107. London: Taylor & Francis.

96. Sokolova, Z.P. 2016. Etnograf v pole. Zapadnaia Sibir’. 1950–1980-e gody [Ethnographer in the Field: Western Siberia, 1950–1980s]. Moscow: Nauka.

97. Sokolovskiy, S.V. 1994. Paradigmy etnologicheskogo znaniia [Paradigms of Ethnological Knowledge]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 2: 3–17.

98. Sokolovskiy, S.V. 2003. Chetvert’ veka rossiiskoi antropologii: 1975–2000 [A Quarter of a Century of Russian Anthropology: 1975–2000]. Etnometodologiia: Problemy, Podkhody, Kontseptsii 9: 136–159.

99. Sokolovskiy, S.V. 2009. Rossiiskaia antropologiia: illiuziia blagopoluchiia [Russian Anthropology: An Illusion of Prosperity]. Neprikosnovennyi Zapas. Debaty o Politike i Kul’ture 1: 45–64.

100. Sokolovskiy, S.V. 2011. V tseitnote: zametki o sostoianii rossiiskoi antropologii [In Time Trouble: Notes on the State of Russian Anthropology]. Laboratorium. Zhurnal sotsial’nykh issledovanii 2: 70–89.

101. Sokolovskiy, S. 2014. Zerkala i otrazheniia, ili eshche raz o situatsii v rossiiskoi antropologii [Mirrors and Reflections, or Again about the Situation in Russian Anthropology]. Antropologicheskii forum 20: 143–188.

102. Sokolovskiy, S.V. 2015. Rossiiskaia antropologiia: sovremennaia problematika i distsiplinarnoe ustroistvo [Russian Anthropology: Contemporary Issues and Disciplinary Composition]. In Etnometodologiia: problemy, podkhody, kontseptsii [Ethnomethodology: Problems, Approaches, Concepts], edited by A.A. Piskoppel et al., 19: 131–169. Moscow: Nasledie MMK.

103. Sokolovskiy, S.V. 2016. Budushchee antropologii: kross-, inter-, mul’ti-, trans-, a- ili postdistsiplinarnost’? [The Future of Anthropology: Cross-, Inter-, Multi-, Trans-, A-, or Post-Disciplinarity?]. Siberian Historical Research 4: 12–29. https://doi.org/10.17223/2312461X/14/2

104. Sokolovskiy, S.V. 2017. Teorii veshchei i etnografii material’nosti [Theories of Things and Ethnographies of Materiality]. In Rossiiskaia antropologiia i “ontologicheskii povorot” [Russian Anthropology and the “Ontological Turn”], edited by S.V. Sokolovskiy, 3–30. Moscow: IEA RAN.

105. Solovei, T.D. 1998. Ot “burzhuaznoi” etnologii k “sovetskoi” etnografii. istoriia otechestvennoi etnologii pervoi treti XX veka [From “Bourgeois” Ethnology to “Soviet” Ethnography: A History of Domestic Ethnology of the First Third of the 20th Сentury]. Moscow: IEA RAN.

106. Spivak, G.C. 1988. Can the Subaltern Speak? In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, edited by C. Nelson and L. Grossberg, 271–313. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

107. Stefanovich, P.S. 2018. Novye podkhody k etnichnosti v medievistike: vzgliad iz “drevnerusskoi perspektivy” [New Approaches to Ethnicity in Medieval Studies: A View from the “Old Russian Perspective”]. In Istoricheskaia pamiat’ i rossiiskaia identichnost’ [Historical Memory and Russian Identity], edited by V.A. Tishkov and E.A. Pivneva, 467–486. Moscow: RAN.

108. Stepanov, V.V., and A.V. Chernykh, eds. 2018. Gosudarstvennaia natsional’naia politika Rossii: ekspertnoe mnenie [State National Policy of Russia: An Expert Opinion]. Moscow: IEA RAN.

109. Tishkov, V.A. 1974. K istorii vozniknoveniia franko-kanadskogo natsional’nogo voprosa [On the History of Emergence of the French-Canadian National Issue]. Voprosy istorii 1: 76–90.

110. Tishkov, V.A. 1977. Politika dvuiazychiia v Kanade [Bilingualism Policy in Canada]. Rasy i narody: ezhegodnik [Races and Peoples: Yearbook], 207–224. Moscow: IEA RAN.

111. Tishkov, V.A. 1978. Osvoboditel’noe dvizhenie v kolonial’noi Kanade [Liberation Movement in Colonial Canada]. Moscow: Nauka.

112. Tishkov, V.A. 1989. Da izmenitsia molitva moia! O novykh podkhodakh v teorii i praktike mezhnatsional’nykh otnoshenii [May My Prayer Change! On New Approaches in the Theory and Practice of Interethnic Relations]. Moscow: INION.

113. Tishkov, V.A. 1989. O novykh podkhodakh v teorii i praktike mezhnatsional’nykh otnoshenii [On New Approaches in the Theory and Practice of National Relations]. Sovetskaia etnografiia 5: 3–15.

114. Tishkov, V.A. 1990. Ob idee natsii [On the Idea of Nation]. Obshchestvennye nauki 4: 83–95.

115. Tishkov, V.A. 1992. Sovetskaia etnografiia: preodolenie krizisa [Soviet Ethnography: Overcoming the Crisis]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 1: 5–19.

116. Tishkov, V.A. 1992. The Crisis in Soviet Ethnography. Current Anthropology 33 (4): 371–94.

117. Tishkov, V. 1994. Post-Soviet Ethnography: Not a Crisis but Something More Serious. Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia 33 (3): 87–92.

118. Tishkov, V.A. 1995. Chto est’ Rossiia? (Perspektivy Natsiestroitel’stva) [What is Russia? (Prospects of Nation-Building)]. Voprosy filosofii 2: 3–17.

119. Tishkov, V.A. 1996. O natsii i natsionalizme: polemicheskie zametki [On Nation and Nationalism: Polemic Notes]. Svobodnaia mysl’ 3: 30–38.

120. Tishkov, V. 1997. Ethnicity, Nationalism and Conflict in and after the Soviet Union. The Mind Aflame. London: Sage Publications.

121. Tishkov, V.A. 1998. U.S. and Russian Anthropology: Unequal Dialogue in a Time of Transition. Current Anthropology 39 (1): 1–17.

122. Tishkov, V.A. 1998. Zabyt’ o natsii: postnatsionalisticheskoe ponimanie natsionalizma [Forgetting the Nation: Post-Nationalist Understanding of Nationalism]. Voprosy filosofii 9: 3–26.

123. Tishkov, V.A. 2002. Gorizonty rossiiskoi etnologii. K 70-letiiu Instituta etnologii i antropologii RAN [Horizons of Russian Ethnology: Toward the 70th Anniversary of the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology RAS]. Novaia i noveishaia istoriia 5: 3–18.

124. Tishkov, V.A. 2003. Rekviem po etnosu: issledovanie po sotsial’noi i kul’turnoi antropologii [Requiem for Etnos: A Study in Social and Cultural Anthropology]. Moscow: Nauka.

125. Tishkov, V.A. 2003. Rossiiskaia etnologiia: status distsipliny, sostoianie teorii, napravleniia i rezul’taty issledovanii [Russian Anthropology: Contemporary State, Theoretical Directions, and Research Results]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 5: 3–23.

126. Tishkov, V. 2004. Chechnya: Life in a War-Torn Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.

127. Tishkov, V.A., ed. 2011. Rossiiskaia natsiia: stanovlenie i etnokul’turnoe mnogoobrazie [The Russian Nation: Formation and Ethnocultural Diversity]. Moscow: Nauka.

128. Tishkov, V.A. 2013. Rossiiskii narod. Istoriia i smysl natsional’nogo samosoznaniia [Russian People: A History and Meaning of the National Identity]. Moscow: Nauka.

129. Tishkov, V.A. 2016. Ot etnosa k etnichnosti i posle [From Ethnos to Ethnicity and After]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 5: 5–22.

130. Tishkov, V.A., ed. 2016. Rossiiskaia Arktika: korennye narody i promyshlennoe osvoenie [Russian Arctic: Indigenous Peoples and Industrial Development]. Moscow: Nestor-Istoriia, 2016.

131. Tishkov, V. 2019. From Ethnos to Ethnicity and Back. In Ethnic Group and Boundaries Today: A Legacy of Fifty Years, edited by T.H. Eriksen, M. Jakoubek, 78–92. London: Routledge.

132. Tishkov, V.A. 2019. My – rossiskii narod [We Are the Russian People]. Moscow: Ventana-Graf.

133. Tishkov, V.A. 2019. Narod ne umiraet vmeste s yazykom [A People Does Not Die along with Its Language]. Izvestiia. 12.09.2019.

134. Tishkov, V.A., and O.Yu. Artemova. 2018. Antropologiia i etnologiia. Uchebnik dlia vuzov [Anthropology and Ethnology: Textbook for High Schools]. Moscow: KDU, Universitetskaia kniga”.

135. Tishkov, V.A., and E.A. Pivneva. 2010. Etnologicheskie i antropologicheskie issledovaniia v rossiiskoi akademicheskoi nauke [Ethnological and Anthropological Studies in Russian Academic Science]. Novaia i noveishaia istoriia 2: 3–21.

136. Tishkov, V.A., and E.I. Filippova. 2016. Kul’turnaia slozhnost’ sovremennykh natsii [The Cultural Complexity of Modern Nations]. Moscow: ROSSPEN.

137. Tishkov, V.A., and V.A. Shnirelman, eds. 2007. Natsionalizm v mirovoi istorii [Nationalism in World History]. Moscow: Nauka.

138. Tishkov, V.A., and V.A. Shnirelman, eds. 2012. Etnichnost’ i religiia v sovremennykh konfliktakh [Ethnicity and Religion in Modern Conflicts]. Moscow: Nauka.

139. Tishkov, V.A., and V.V. Stepanov, eds. 2018. Fenomen etnicheskogo konflikta: mezhdistsiplinarnyi podkhod i obshchestvennye praktiki. Opyt preduprezhdeniia i uregulirovaniia konfliktov [The Phenomenon of Ethnic Conflict: An Interdisciplinary Approach and Social Practices: Experience in Preventing and Resolving Conflicts]. Moscow: IEA RAN.

140. Tishkov, V.A., and V.V. Stepanov, eds. 2018. Etnicheskoe i religioznoe mnogoobrazie Rossii [Ethnic and Religious Diversity of Russia]. Moscow: IEA RAN.

141. Tokarev, S.A. 1958. Etnografiia narodov USSR. Istoricheskie osnovy byta i kul’tury [Ethnography of Peoples of the USSR: Historical Foundations of Life and Culture]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo MGU.

142. Tumarkin, D.D., ed. 2002–2003. Repressirovannye etnografy [Repressed Ethnographers]. 2 vols. Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura.

143. Turner, D.A. 2006. This Is Not a Peace Pipe: Towards a Critical Indigenous Philosophy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

144. Uvarov, M.S. 1996. Binarnyi arkhetip. Evoliutsiia idei antinomizma v istorii evropeiskoi filosofii i kul’tury [Binary Archetype: Evolution of Antinomianism in the History of European Philosophy and Culture]. St. Petersburg: Izdatel’stvo BGTU.

145. Verdery, C. 1991. National Ideology under Socialism: Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceauşescu’s Romania. Berkeley: University of California Press.

146. Verdery, C. 2019. The Dangerous Shoals of Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: A Personal Account. In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries Today: A Legacy of Fifty Years, edited by T.H. Eriksen and M. Jakoubek, 38–46. London: Routledge.

147. Vermeulen, H.F. 2015. Before Boas: The Genesis of Ethnography and Ethnology in the German Enlightenment. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

148. Vertovec, S. 2007. Super-Diversity and Its Implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies 30 (6): 1024–1053.

149. Widlok, T. 2016. Anthropology and the Economy of Sharing. London: Routledge.

150. Widlok, T. 2019. Extending and Limiting Selves: A Processual Theory of Sharing. In Towards a Broader View of Hunter-Gatherer Sharing, edited by N. Lavi and D.E. Friesem, 25–38. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up