Пространственная семантика: новые достижения

 
Код статьиS0373658X0004901-0-1
DOI10.31857/S0373658X0004901-0
Тип публикации Обзор
Статус публикации Опубликовано
Авторы
Аффилиация: Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики»
Адрес: Российская Федерация, Москва
Аффилиация: Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики»
Адрес: Российская Федерация, Москва
Название журналаВопросы языкознания
ВыпускНомер 3
Страницы125-142
АннотацияВ данной работе рассматриваются тенденции в исследованиях пространственных и временных отношений в языке на основе четырех книг — «Space and time in languages and cultures: Language, culture, and cognition» (2012), «Motion encoding in language and space» (2013), «The spatial language of time. Metaphor, metonymy and frames of reference» (2014) и «Space in diachrony» (2017), — охватывающих широкий круг тем и подходов. Основные темы таковы: концептуализация времени и пространства в разных языках, влияние культуры на представления о времени и пространстве, гранулярность, системы координат в языке, глаголы движения, асимметричное выражение источника и цели. Используемые в исследованиях методы также очень разнообразны (формальные, экспериментальные, лексическая типология и т. д.) Многие работы демонстрируют тенденцию к междисциплинарным исследованиям: одна и та же проблема изучается с помощью разных подходов и рассматривается с разных ракурсов.
Ключевые словаасимметрия источника и цели, глаголы движения, гранулярность, метафора «время — пространство», системы координат в языке, пространственные отношения
Получено24.06.2019
Дата публикации24.06.2019
Кол-во символов60577
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1

Introduction

2 Over the past decade, the study of space and time has become a highly developed area of linguistics. Space and time as objects of investigation have proved to be fruitful and the methods used to study them are versatile, ranging from formal and experimental to anthropological participant observation, and lexical typology. Most recent studies (e.g. [Janda 2013; Molsing, Ibaños 2014]) combine these approaches and attempt, for example, to find cognitive parallels and explanations for the observed typological data or to conduct a formal semantic analysis of particular space and time expressions.
3 In this paper, we review studies of space and time that have been conducted over the last 10 years. The most prominent recent studies include, among others, [Evans 2004; 2013] on the definition of what time is and how it functions in language, [Ibarretxe-Antuñano (ed.) 2017] and [Hickmann, Robert (eds.) 2006] on motion and space, [Levinson 2006] on the grammars of space across languages. Since we are limited to the boundaries of a single overview paper, we have chosen four edited volumes for the detailed review: [Filipović, Jaszczolt 2012; Moore 2014; Luraghi et al. 2017], and [Vulchanova, van der Zee 2013], while also providing some additional information about some of the most significant journal papers. The reason for choosing the first three volumes is their interdisciplinarity and the wide range of approaches presented in them; many of the studies presented in these volumes deal with very similar issues but explore them within different frameworks, which allows to explore those topics from various angles and either provide additional support for the results, or point out their controversial nature. The fourth volume has been chosen because it is the first collection of papers devoted solely to granularity in language, which makes it a fundamental work for this line of research.
4 The authors of these volumes include both worldwide-known linguists and their younger colleagues, and the papers represent well-established frameworks as well as new and highly promising approaches to old issues. The main topics of interest in these volumes are as follows: language-specific systems of space and time conceptualization, cultural differences in understanding time, space and time (dis)analogy, granularity, frame of reference, verbs of motion, and Source vs. Goal asymmetry.
5 Our review begins with a brief description of notions that are relevant to the study of space and time in the recent 20–30 years. In the rest of this article, each section corresponds to one of the volumes listed above. We start by discussing the most general volumes that cover relatively wide sets of problems and contain papers that use different approaches and frameworks. Then, we proceed to more specific issues that receive special attention in those volumes, such as granularity, frame of reference and diachronic development of spatial expressions across languages.
6

1. Important notions

7 TIME-IS-SPACE metaphor. According to the theory proposed by Lakoff and Johnson [1980a; 1980b; 1999], our ability to conceptualize time and encode it in linguistic terms is mediated by a metaphorical mapping of the basic terms used for describing our spatial experience from the domain of space onto the more abstract domain of time. This mapping is argued to be typologically universal and influence the way spatial terms acquire time-related semantics. The TIME-IS-SPACE metaphor and, more widely, the relations between time and space in general have become crucial in the discussion of the cognitive aspects of language functioning and development (see [Clark 1973; Traugott 1978; Langacker 1987; Lehrer 1990; Haspelmath 1997; Heine, Kuteva 2002]).
8 Verb-framed vs. satellite-framed languages. According to [Talmy 1985; 1991], languages differ in how they encode the information about path and manner of motion. In verb-framed languages, e.g. in Spanish, verbal roots encode the information about the path of motion, cf. Talmy’s prototypical example: la botella salió flotando, lit. ‘the bottle exited floating’, where the verb salió expresses the path, and the manner is expressed by the gerund flotando. In satellite-framed languages, like English, the manner is encoded within the verb and the path is expressed by a satellite, cf. the following example: the bottle floated out. Here the verb floated only expresses the manner of motion, while the path is expressed by out. This typology has been widely discussed in the literature, cf. [Slobin 1996a; 2004; Pedersen, Nimb 2000; Acedo-Matellán, Mateu 2013].
9 Fictive motion is usually defined as the metaphorical motion of an object through space, when an inherently static situation is conceptualized in terms of motion and encoded by dynamic means. According to Talmy, this phenomenon involves a discrepancy between two cognitive representations (static and dynamic) of the same situation within the cognition of an individual [Talmy 2000a: 100].

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