Berenice Panchrysos – Al-Allaqi–Deraheib: Archaeological Reality in Light of Historical Geography

 
PIIS032103910008632-8-1
DOI10.31857/S032103910008632-8
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Senior Research Fellow
Affiliation: Institute of World History, RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameVestnik drevnei istorii
EditionVolume 80 Issue 1
Pages171-191
Abstract

The unique mention of Berenice Panchrysos by Pliny the Elder (VI. 170) is connected in the latest archaeological literature with the site of Deraheib in Wadi al-Allaqi – the center of gold mining and trade in the Nubian Desert. The text of Pliny’s Natural History, however, indicates the location of Berenice Panchrysos on the coast of the Red Sea, rather than inland, and this epithet could be compared with the description of Sabai – the capital of the “Sabaeans” – inhabitants of ŚWM in Southern Arabia, given by Agatharchides of Cnidos. Sabai is described by Agatharchides in the same way as South Arabia in general – ideal land of full material prosperity. In the same way it is necessary to consider the mention of Berenice Panchrysos. It could receive its denomination “all-golden” from Sabai – South Arabian city ŚWM: in the descriptions of Sabai, gold is the dominant motive emphasizing exclusive richness of the extreme South of Arabia. In this regard, the identification of Berenice Panchrysos and Berenice-near-Sabai looks quite possible. These two place-names could also be hypothetically identified with Berenice-epi-Dires, which seems to reflect the tradition on foundation of one city (Berenice) at the exit from the Red Sea, which came to be known under three different epithets.

Keywordsclassical geographical tradition, Red Sea, Southern Arabia, Nubia, Wadi al-Allaqi, Deraheib, Ptolemaic Egypt, gold mining
Received12.03.2020
Publication date24.03.2020
Number of characters48408
Cite  
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 1348

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. al'-Jakubi. Kniga stran. Vstup. st., per., kommentarii i ukazateli L.A. Semyonovoj; otv. red. D.V. Mikul'skij. M., 2011.

2. Bardeschi, C.D. 2004: Nubia Bibliography up to 2000: List of Archaeological Missions in Nubia. URL: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000150176; data obrascheniya 01.02.2020

3. Barnard, H. 2008: Eastern Desert Ware: Traces of the Inhabitants of the Eastern Deserts in Egypt and Sudan During the 4th–6th Centuries CE. Oxford.

4. Budge, E.A.W. 1907: The Egyptian Sudan, its History and Monuments. Vol. II. London.

5. Bukharin, M.D. Yuzhnaya Araviya, Sredizemnomor'e i Vostochnaya Afrika: torgovye i istoriko-kul'turnye svyazi. M., 2009.

6. Bukharin, M.D. 2011: The Notion τὸ πέρας τῆς ἀνακομιδῆς and the location of Ptolemais of the Hunts in the “Periplus of the Erythraean sea”. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 22, 219‒231.

7. Bukharin, M.D. Antichnyj mir na yuge ojkumeny. Literaturnaya traditsiya i pamyatniki ehpigrafiki v ehllinisticheskuyu i rimskuyu ehpokhi. M., 2018.

8. Burstein, S.M. 1989: Agatharchides of Knides. On the Erythraean Sea. London.

9. Burstein, S.M. 1993: The Hellenistic fringe: The case of Meroe. In: P. Green (ed.), Hellenistic History and Culture. Berkeley–Los Angeles–Oxford, 38–54.

10. Castiglioni, Al., Castiglioni, An. 1999: Berenike Panchrysos. In: K.A. Bard (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. London–New York, 198–201.

11. Castiglioni, Al., Castiglioni, An., Vercoutter, J. 1995: L’Eldorado dei Faraoni. Novara.

12. Castiglioni, Al., Castiglioni, An., Vercoutter, J. 1998: Das Goldland der Pharaonen. Die Entdeckung von Berenike Pancrisia. Mainz.

13. Chabas, F. 1902: Les inscriptions relatives aux mines d’or de Nubie. Bibliothèque égyptologique X, 183–230.

14. Cohen, G.M. 2006: The Hellenistic Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin and North Africa. Berkely–Los Angeles–London.

15. Desanges, J. 1978a: Le littoral africain du Bab el-Mandeb d’après les sources grecques et latines. Annales d’Ethiopie 11, 83–101.

16. Desanges, J. 1978b: Recherches sur l’activité des Mediterraneens aux confins de l’Afrique. Paris.

17. Detlefsen, D. 1904: Die geographischen Bücher (II, 242 – VI Schluss) der Naturalis Historia des C. Plinius Secundus mit vollständigem kritischen Apparat. Berlin.

18. Harrell, J.A., Brown, V.M. 1992: The oldest surviving topographical map from Ancient Egypt: (Turin Papyri 1879, 1899, and 1969). Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 29, 81–105.

19. Kherst, G. Nil. Obschee opisanie reki i ispol'zovaniya ee vod. Per. s angl. A.B. Shmeleva, predisl. i red. I.V. Samojlova. M., 1954.

20. Ibn Hauqal 1964: Configuration de la terre (Kitab surat alard). Ed. J.H. Kramers, G. Wiet. Beyrouth–Paris.

21. Krol, A.A. Marshruty khadzha iz Egipta v Khidzhaz cherez Vostochnuyu pustynyu i port Ajzab v IX–XV vv. Vostok (Oriens) 2, 2018, 21–30.

22. Krol, A.A., Berezina, N.Ya., Zajtsev, Yu.P. Sezon 2018 goda Nubij-skoj arkheologo-antropologicheskoj ehkspeditsii NII i Muzeya antropologii MGU imeni M.V. Lomonosova na pamyatnike Derakhejb (Respublika Sudan). Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Ser. XXIII. Antropologiya, 2019, 134–144.

23. Drevnie i srednevekovye istochniki po ehtnografii i istorii Afriki yuzhnee Sakhary. T. II. Arabskie istochniki X–XII vekov. Podgot. tekstov i per. L.E. Kubbelya, V.V. Matveeva. L., 1965.

24. Drevnie i srednevekovye istochniki po ehtnografii i istorii Afriki yuzhnee Sakhary. T. III. Arabskie istochniki X–XII vekov. Podgot. tekstov i per. L.E. Kubbelya, V.V. Matveeva. L., 1985.

25. Linant de Bellefonds, L.M.A. 1868: L’Etbaye ou pays habité par les arabes Bichariehs: Géographie, ethnologie, mines d’or. Paris.

26. Llopis, E. 1998: Berenice Panchrysos (Deraheib). Campagne de sondages archéologiques sur le site de Berenice Panchrysos. Désert oriental de Nubie (déc. 1997 – jan. 1998). Soudan.

27. Llopis, E. 1999: Berenice Panchrysos (Deraheib). Campagne de sondages archaeologiques sur le site de Berenice Panchrysos. Désert oriental de Nubie (déc. 1998 – jan. 1999). Soudan.

28. Meyer, C. 2011: Ancient gold mining, miners, and ore reduction. In: S. Meyer et al. (ed.), Bir Umm Fawakhir. Vol. 2. Report on the 1996–1997 Survey Seasons. (Oriental Institute Communications, 30). Chicago, 161–177.

29. Monneret de Villard, U. 1935: La Nubia Medioevale. Vol. 1–2. Cairo.

30. Paul, A. 1954: History of the Beja Tribes of the Sudan. Cambridge.

31. Plinij Starshij. Estestvennaya istoriya. Kniga VI. Perevod s latinskogo i kommentarii pod obschej redaktsiej A.V. Podosinova. VDI 78/3, 2018, 767–795.

32. Sadr, K., Castiglioni, Al., Castiglioni, An. 1998: Nubian Desert archaeology: a preliminary view. Archéologie du Nil Moyen 1998, 7, 203–235.

33. Sadr, K., Castiglioni, Al., Castiglioni, An. 1999: Deraheib: Die goldene Stadt der Nubischen Wüste. Mitteilungen der Sudanarchäologische Gesellschaft zu Berlin 9, 52–57.

34. Sadr, K., Castiglioni, Al., Castiglioni, An., Negro, G. 1994: Archaeology in the Nubian Desert. Sahara 6, 69–75.

35. Sethe, K. 1897: Berenike. 3–9. In: RE. Hbd. 5, 280–282.

36. Sidebotham, S.E., Hence, M., Nouwens, H.M. 2008: The Red Land: The Illustrated Archaeology of Egypt’s Eastern Desert. Cairo.

37. Plinij Starshij. Estestvoznanie. Ob iskusstve. Perevod s lat., predislovie i primechaniya G.A. Taronyana. M., 1994.

38. Tcherikover, V. 1927: Die hellenistischen Stadtegrundungen von Alexander dem Grossen bis auf die Römerzeit. Leipzig.

39. Török, L. 2009: Between Two Worlds. The Frontier Region Between Ancient Nubia and Egypt 3700 BC – AD 500. Leiden–Boston.

40. Vercoutter, J. 1990: Découverte de Bérénice Panchrysos dans le désert entre Nil et mer Rouge. Comptesrendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 134ᵉ année, 4, 899–903.

41. Wiet, G. (ed.) 1955: Ibn Rusteh. Les Atours Précieux. Le Caire.

42. Williams, B. 2002: Das Goldland der Pharaonen: Die Entdeckung von Berenike Pancrisia. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 61/2, 147–148.

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up