Tatyana Zaslavskaya as an Economist and Sociologist: The Way to Science and Life in Science

 
PIIS086904990003940-6-1
DOI10.31857/S086904990003940-6
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: National Research University “Higher School of Economics”
Address: Russian Federation,Moscow
Journal nameObshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost
EditionIssue 1
Pages19-38
Abstract

, 2018, no. 6) was devoted to the history of the formation of Zaslavskaya as a person, as a scientist, to the grasping of those principles that later formed the basis of her work as a mentor, creator of her economical and sociological school. This second part identifies the consistency of key concepts integral to the economic and sociological periods of Zaslavskaya's academic career and points out the growing expansion and complexity of her research area. Special emphasis is made on the up-to-date significance of the concepts and theories developed by Zaslavskaya over years for social economics, economic and general sociology and an interdisciplinary conceptualization of post-communist transformations

KeywordsZaslavskaya, social economics, economic sociology, Novosibirsk School of Economic Sociology, social mechanisms, post-communist transformations
Received12.03.2019
Publication date15.03.2019
Number of characters51261
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1 Социальная экономика Т. Заславской
2

В первой части статьи мы остановились на истории развития идей Заславской до середины 1950-х гг. Экспедиции (наблюдения, опросы) и выступление Н. Хрущева на XX съезде КПСС активизировали ее размышления о природе советского общества и причинах проявлявшихся уже тогда кризисных явлений. Поставив для себя принципиальный вопрос: в каком обществе мы живем, какова его социальная природа? – она начала собирать материалы, делать конспекты, размышлять. В архиве Заславской сохранились несколько тетрадей ее конспектов и размышлений, написанных в то время. Они хранились в тайнике, так как их обнаружение “могло повлечь тяжелые последствия, вплоть до исключения из партии и увольнения с работы&8j1; [Заславская 2007, т. 3, с. 443]. Сам перечень волновавших ее вопросов дает основание сделать вывод о том, что начало осмысления социального механизма развития экономики и общества было положено еще на первом этапе научного пути. Подчеркну, что тогда ей не было и 30 лет. В воспоминаниях Татьяны Ивановны приводятся те вопросы и суждения из плана для трактата, адресованного себе самой. Это план сегодня особо интересен тем, что поставленные в 1950-х гг. вопросы оказались актуальными и спустя 30 лет, когда советская система быстро стремилась к закату:

  1. Признаки ощутимого надлома советской системы…: замедляющийся рост производства, падение благосостояния населения, инфляция, безработица, отсутствие материальных стимулов к труду, растущая преступность, особенно молодежи.
  2. Равнодушие к человеку, низкая цена его жизни, отсутствие реального технического прогресса – как свидетельство неэффективности социального строя.
  3. Недостатки общественных отношений: некомпетентное и чрезмерно детальное планирование производства, скованность местной инициативы, погоня за количеством продукции в ущерб ее качеству, коррупция аппарата управления.
  4. Противоречие между мощными производительными силами, созданными на местах, и реакционно-бюрократической системой управления производством в центре, подавляющей инициативу мест.
  5. Эксплуатация одних общественных классов другими. Крестьянство как самый эксплуатируемый класс общества. Современное “крепостное право&8j1; – лишение сельских жителей паспортов. Деградация и вымирание колхозного села.
  6. Тяжелое жилищное и материальное положение рабочих и мелких служащих. Резкое снижение уровня жизни населения. Рабочие демонстрации протеста.
  7. Корни политической и экономической “глухоты&8j1; партийного руководства к проблемам общества. Политический переворот 30-х годов и формирование нового правящего класса. Его отношение к средствам производства, способы присвоения общественного прибавочного продукта, примерный профессиональный состав.
  8. Отсутствие реального морально-политического единства советского народа, противоречивость интересов социальных классов и групп. Лживость и апологетический характер обещаний власти, пропаганды и общественной науки.
  9. Подлинный социальный строй СССР. Строим ли мы социализм или живем при государственном капитализме, о необходимости и неизбежности которого как этапа на пути к социализму предупреждал Ленин.
  10. Можно ли планомерно переориентировать многомиллионное общество с неэффективного пути на более эффективный? Какие политические силы существуют в СССР? Насколько реальны перспективы революции “сверху&8j1; или “снизу&8j1;?&8j1;» [Заславская 2007, т. 3, с. 443–444].

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55. Zaslavskaya T.I., Shabanova M.A. (2002) K probleme institutsionalizatsii nepravovykh sotsial'nykh praktik v Rossii: sfera truda [On the Problem of Institutionalization of Non-Jural Social Practices in Russia: The Labor Sphere]. Mir Rossii, no. 2, pp. 3–38.

56. Zaslavskaya T.I., Shabanova M.A. (2004) Transformatsionnyy protsess v Rossii i institutsionalizatsiya nepravovykh praktik [The Transformation Process in Russia and the Institutionalization of Non-Jural Practices]. Istoki: Ekonomika v kontekste istorii i kul'tury [Origins: Economics in the Context of History and Culture]. Moscow: HSE, pp. 208–261.

57. Zaslavskaya T.I., Shabanova M.A. (2012a) Uspeshnye ekonomicheskie aktory kak potentsial'naya modernizatsionnaya obshchnost'. Stat'ya 1. Sotsial'nye osobennosti i vzaimodeystviya v problemnoy institutsional'noy srede [Successful Economic Actors as a Potential Modernization Community. Article 1. Social Peculiarities and Interactions in a Problematic Institutional Environment]. Obshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost', no. 4, pp. 5–23.

58. Zaslavskaya T.I., Shabanova M.A. (2012b) Uspeshnye ekonomicheskie aktory kak potentsial'naya modernizatsionnaya obshchnost'. Stat'ya 2. Innovatsionnyy potentsial i problemy ego realizatsii [Successful Economic Actors as a Potential Modernization Community. Article 2. The Innovation Potential and the Problems of Its Realization]. Obshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost', no. 5, pp. 5–24.

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