The real world as augmented metaverse (coming transformations of law)

 
PIIS102694520028493-3-1
DOI10.31857/S102694520028493-3
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Head of the Computer Law and Information Security Chair, Supreme State Audit School (Faculty), Lomonosov Moscow State University
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Occupation: Leading Researcher, Department of Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and Criminology, Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Affiliation: Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameGosudarstvo i pravo
EditionIssue 11
Pages155-169
Abstract

This article deals with legal issues of metaverse – a new digital environment that uses virtual and augmented/extended reality technologies. With further developments, virtual worlds could become widely accessible in the foreseeable future and provide new opportunities in education, healthcare, economics and other areas of public and social life. Experts predict that the economy within metaverse will exceed the size of the real world economy fast. Along with positive, metaverse also has negative sides including increase of current risks associated with use of information and communication technologies and emergence of new ones dealing with security and privacy of users’ personal data and effective counteraction to cybercrimes. In this regard, the authors underscore the importance of legal regulation of metaverse and management of novel risks, also in the field of legal regulation concerning application of the underlying highly complex technologies. Principles and rules to regulate relations in metaverse should be developed the sooner the better and in prospect of further developments, because in the near future they could have a significant impact on the law of real world. The authors introduce the concepts of “observation” and “observer”, which formalize in legal context the idea of a legal view and discuss possible – depending on the position of the observer – approaches to the legal framework of metaverse governance, virtual law and its relationships with the real world law.

Keywordsmetaverse, virtual reality, augmented/extended reality, information and communication technologies, Internet, virtual objects, personal data, privacy, virtual crimes, observer
Received04.07.2023
Publication date04.12.2023
Number of characters47915
Cite  
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 210

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Baturin Yu. M. From Internet to the Virtual Earth and the Metaverse (A Brief History of Information Technology at the Critical Frontier). M.; Saratov, 2022. P. 146 - 150 (in Russ.).

2. Baturin Yu. M., Polubinskaya S.V. What Makes Virtual Crimes to Be Real // Proceedings of the Institute of State and Law. 2018. Vol. 13. No. 2. P. 9 - 35 (in Russ.).

3. Brownlie J. Principles of Public International Law: in two books. M., 1977. Book two. P. 137, 138 (in Russ.).

4. Savel’ev A.I. The legal nature of virtual objects acquired for real money in multiplayer games // Herald of Civil Law. 2014. No. 1. P. 139 (in Russ.).

5. Stepanov P.P., Filatova M.A. Problems of criminal law protection of virtual gaming property // Russian Journal of Criminology. 2021. Vol. 15. No. 6. P. 744 - 755 (in Russ.).

6. Al-Ghaili A.M., Kasim H., Al-Hada N.M. et al. A Review of Metaverse’s Definitions, Architecture, Applications, Challenges, Issues, Solutions, and Future Trends // IEEE Access. 2022. Vol. 10. P. 125839.

7. Anderson J., Rainie L. The Metaverse in 2040 // Pew Research Center. June 30, 2022. P. 6 - 8 [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2022/06/30/the-metaverse-in-2040/ (дата обращения: 25.05.2023).

8. Brenner S.W. Fantasy Crime: The Role of Criminal Law in Virtual Worlds // Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment and Technology Law. 2008. Vol. 11. No. 1. P. 20 - 31, 46, 47, 52 - 61.

9. Cabasso A. Piercing Pennoyer with the Sword of a Thousand Truths: Jurisdictional Issues in the Virtual World // Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal. 2012. Vol. 22. No. 2. P. 432, 435.

10. Chen Z., Wu J., Gan W., Oi Z. Metaverse Security and Privacy: An Overview // IEEE International Conference on Big Data. 2022. P. 2953 - 2956 [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/367455946_Metaverse_Security_and_Privacy_An_Overview (дата обращения: 25.05.2023).

11. Cheng X., Zhang S., Fu S. et al. Exploring the Metaverse in the Digital Economy: An Overview and Research Framework // Journal of Electronic Business and Digital Economics. 2022. Vol. 1. Iss. 1/2. P. 206 - 224 [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL:https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JEBDE-09-2022-0036/full/html (дата обращения: 12.05.2023).

12. Chengoden R., Victor N., Huynh-The H. et al. Metaverse for Healthcare: A Survey on Potential Applications, Challenges and Future Directions // IEEE Access. 2023. Vol. 11. P. 12765 - 12795 [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/10034994 (дата обращения: 10.05.2023).

13. Chow Y.-W., Susilo W., Li Y. et al. Visualization and Cybersecurity in the Metaverse: A Survey // Journal of Imaging. 2023. Vol.  9. Iss. 1. Art. 11 [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2313-433X/9/1/11 (дата обращения: 12.05.2023).

14. Dilla W.N., Harrison A.J., Mennecke B.E., Janvrin D.J. The Assets Are Virtual but the Behavior Is Real: An Analysis of Fraud in Virtual Worlds and Its Implication for the Real World // Journal of Information Systems. 2013. Vol. 27. No. 2. P. 131 - 158.

15. Di Pietro R., Cresci S. Metaverse: Security and Privacy Issues // Third IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). Atlanta, GA, USA. 2021. P. 281 - 288.

16. Fairfield J.A.T. Mixed Reality: How the Laws of Virtual Worlds Govern Everyday Life // Berkeley Technology Law Journal. 2012. Vol. 27. Iss. 1. P. 72.

17. Fairfield J.A.T. Virtual Property // Boston University Law Review. 2005. Vol. 85. Iss. 4. P. 1047–1102.

18. Grimmelmann J. Regulation by Software // The Yale Law Journal. 2005. Vol. 114. No. 7. P. 1719 - 1758.

19. Huang Y., Li Y. J., Cai Z. Security and Privacy in Metaverse: A Comprehensive Survey // Big Data Mining and Analytics. 2023. Vol. 6. No. 2. P. 234-247.

20. Janhianen J.S., Krohn C., Junnila J. Metaverse and Sustainability: Systematic Review of Scientific Publications until 2022 and Beyond // Sustainability. 2023. Vol. 15. Iss. 1. Art. 346 [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/15/1/346 (дата обращения: 07.05.2023).

21. Jankowich A.E. EULaw: The Complex Web of Corporate Rule-Making in Virtual Worlds // Tulane Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property. 2006. Vol. 8. Р. 5, 9, 54 - 56.

22. Kerr O.S. Criminal Law in Virtual Worlds // University of Chicago Legal Forum. 2008. Vol. 2008. Iss. 1. P. 415 - 429.

23. Kim Y. Virtual Privacy Data and Its Privacy Regulatory Challenges: A Call to Move Beyond Text-Based Informed Consent // California Law Review. 2022. Vol. 110. P. 252.

24. Kye B., Han N., Kim E. et al. Educational Applications of Metaverse: Possibilities and Limitations // Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions. 2021. Vol. 18 [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL: https://jeehp.org/journal/view.php?number=424 (дата обращения: 10.05.2023).

25. Laeeq K. Metaverse: Why, How and What [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358505001_Metaverse_Why_How_and_What (дата обращения: 07.05.2023).

26. Lastowka G.F., Hunter D. The Laws of the Virtual Worlds // California Law Review. 2004. Vol. 92. Iss.1. P. 1 - 74.

27. Lastowka G.F., Hunter D. Virtual Crimes // New York Law School Law Review. 2004. Vol. 49. Iss. 1. P. 306 - 310.

28. Laue C. Crime Related to Metaverse // In: Virtual Worlds and Criminality / K. Cornelius, D. Hermann (eds). Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011. P. 21 - 26.

29. Lee L.-H., Braud T., Zhou P. et al. All One Needs to Know about Metaverse: A Complete Survey on Technological Singularity, Virtual Ecosystem, and Research Agenda. Technical Report. October 2021 [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/355172308_All_One_Needs_to_Know_about_Metaverse_A_Complete_Survey_on_Technological_Singularity_Virtual_Ecosystem_and_Research_Agenda?channel=doi&linkId=619c4bc5d7d1af224b199c8d&showFulltext=true (дата обращения: 10.05.2023).

30. Lee L.-H., Zhou P., Braud T., Hui P. What is the Metaverse? An Immersive Cyberspace and Open Challenges. June 8, 2022 [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/361161855_What_is_the_Metaverse_An_Immersive_Cyberspace_and_Open_Challenges (дата обращения: 10.05.2023).

31. Lemley M.A., Volokh E. Law, Virtual Reality, and Augmented Reality // Pennsylvania Law Review. 2018. Vol. 166. No. 5. P. 1070 - 1094.

32. Lemley M.A., Volokh E. The Real Law of Virtual Reality // UC Davis Law Review. 2017. Vol. 51. No. 1. P. 55.

33. Mayer-Schnberger V., Crowley J. Napsters’s Second Life?: The Regulatory Challenges of Virtual Worlds // Northwestern University Law Review. 2006. Vol. 100. Iss. 4. P. 1783, 1784.

34. Mistrette S. The Metaverse – An Alternative Education Space // AI, Computer Science and Robotics Technology. Nov., 2022. P. 1 - 3 [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL: https://www.intechopen.com/journals/1/articles/87 (дата обращения: 10.05.2023).

35. Pooyandeh M., Han K.-J., Sohn I. Cybersecurity in the AI-Based Metaverse: A Survey // Applied Sciences. 2022. Vol. 12. Iss. 24. Art. 12993. P. 6, 7, 10 - 13.

36. Pridmore J., Overocker J. Privacy in Virtual Worlds: A US Perspective // Journal of Virtual Worlds Research. 2014. Vol. 7. No. 1. Lantern – Part 1. P. 4.

37. Ritterbusch G.D., Teichmann M.R. Defining Metaverse: A Systematic Literature Review // IEEE Access. 2023. Vol. 11. P. 12371, 12373.

38. Value creation in the metaverse. The real business in virtual world. McKinsey&Company. June 2022. P. 21, 22, 24 [Electronic resource]. – Assess mode: URL: https://www.mckinsey.com/capabilities/growth-marketing-and-sales/our-insights/value-creation-in-the-metaverse (дата обращения: 07.05.2023).

39. Wang Y., Su Z., Zhang N. et al. A Survey of Metaverse: Fundamentals, Security and Privacy // IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials. 2023. Vol. 25. Iss. 1. P. 320, 322, 326, 328 - 338.

40. Wiederhold B.K. Sexual Harassment in the Metaverse // Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 2022. Vol. 25. No. 8. P. 479.

41. Wu J., Lin K., Lin D. et al. Financial Crimes in Wed3-enpowered Metaverse: Taxonomy, Countermeasures, and Opportunities // IEEE Open Journal of the Computer Society. 2023. Vol. 4. P. 37 - 49.

42. Yang D., Zhou J., Chen Y. et al. Expert Consensus on the Metaverse in Medicine // Clinical eHealth. 2022. Vol. 5. P. 1 - 9.

43. Zack J.S. The Ultimate Company Town: Wading in the Digital Marsh of Second Life // University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law. 2007. Vol. 10. Iss. 1. P. 228, 229.

44. Zallio M., Clarkson P.J. Designing the Metaverse: A Study of Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, Accessibility and Safety for Digital Immersive Environment // Telematics and Informatics. 2022. Vol. 75. Art. 101909. P. 2.

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up